Diffusion CHRISTIAN TEACHING AND THINKING
THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN
IN-MAYBRAT IMIAN SAWIAT PAPUA TEHIT
This paper discusses the history of fusion between the teachings of Christian gospel with the indigo-inilai local Maybrat Imian Sawiat-Tehit and clerical role in creating it. Through this historical study, the author revealed that in early Christian history and modern periods are divided in their attitudes toward local traditions into two groups: conservative and inclusive. Conservative group seeks local tradisitradisi convert, while the inclusive teaching mengharmonikan Kirsten with local values. Such ideas are often discussed in the Church publki like. Besides that, the issue of modernizing the system of Christian teaching is also a topic of discussion in this paper. All play a significant role in the spread of Christians in the region Maybrat Imian Sawiat-Tehit Papua.
Keywords: diffusion, Christian doctrine, the local values, religious, conservative, inclusive.
A. Introduction Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat are three sub-tribes of bonberai tribes, namely that ethnic kinship systems patrilineal.1) Family of this nation, has a sense of history unique population distribution and "somewhat" mystical or full of stories and old mythology. 2) Area Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit Papua initially homogeneous regions exclusively, with a very small area, but due to natural processes marked by kinship and marriage system and played system east of cloth, then formed a large area like this, with the territory or colonies that are distinguished on the basis of language usage tracks. For example Maybrat areas are regions or colonies jajakan language Maybrat, Imian areas are regions colonies jajakan or Imaian language, and Sawiat-Tehit areas are regions or colonies jajakan-Sawiat Bansa Tehit.
1. Patrilineal kinship system into Maybrat Imian Sawiat kinship can not be separated from Portuguese patrilineal historical factors that go into this area. This system brought by Seeker of spices in the Exploration of the Portuguese nation, then the merchants are using the Papuans as their messenger opas namely the Fak-Fak.
2 There is no bomna customs and bomna history, customs bomna told about indigenous issues Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, while history tells bomna historical problems associated with the Maybratan, Ke-Ke-Imianan and Sawiatan-Tehit. The first residential occupancy by a clan or village keret is, and until now recognized as customary rights of their culture. At the beginning of kinship clan runs a natural life, then due to increase in the number of individuals and the formation of areas of new kampong, the village was declared as a system of government. According to the search history that we've done, the village originally formed by the accumulation of the three settlement process established in the community Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, namely keret, hamlets, and kampong. In keret settlement, the Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit live simply and do not live in groups with other kelen as kin or relatives keret clan, which just after the village community formed a small group of close relatives clan. Village community consisting of at least three groups named after the clan village settlement with relatives of clan leadership led by a landlord (tabam-weight ra) who is the owner of the rights of indigenous leaders are weight-captain, and only then Village. Kampong is the smallest social group Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, which has a system and its own leadership structure, the head of kampung. Someone who as head of the kampong at the time was someone who understood the several languages, and scholars, in which power is integrated with one another in the deliberation and consensus. Existence of the village government is not functioning due to be replaced by a system of village administration through the Law No. 5 of 1979. The system of regional autonomy in the era of reform concepts meenghidupkan back berkampong through Regulation No. 9 of 2000. However, various obstacles and problems surfaced due to the lack of clarity in the concepts that turn kampong.
Judging from the aspect of the customs, people Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat separated by two camps, the camps under the rule of one weight (King) and one faction under the authority of Master. Weight (king) tend to run a traditional system rather conservative, while the Master is more democratic. This traditional second born in the dynamics of conflict keadatan, government and religion in society Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Nevertheless, both camps are still in a unit Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, and as a formulation Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat plurality of socio cultural practices.
B. History of Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat.
Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, based on sosiografis consists of two regions namely, Tehit and SFA, each having the structure of language typology and different but the same religion. Tehit region is a region located geologically in the coastal area with people's livelihoods as fishermen, while the SFA is located in the mountains and the fertile agricultural area with a population of livelihood as a farmer's eyes.
1. Constellation Tehit in Religion in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat.
In the spread of Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, meaning Coast region
important to be studied and used as the basis of history, since the arrival of Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, did not escape the process of economic interaction between Portuguese traders who came through the Fak-Fak to find spices and birds of paradise that introduces some glassware materials as an increase of Economists native (Tehit 1958) In addition, coastal areas including metropolitan areas because of the lane and transit transportation of foreign economists. Cultural and religious contacts more quickly accessed and accumulated by Tehit community. In the spread of Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, coastal areas or the central region Tehit a Christian development. Information on this history can be traced through the religious carriers that come through the river kaibus Tehit by evangelist named Yotley, Matatula and accompanied by the Rev.. J. Wetstein, which they combed the area Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, through kaibus river Tehit coast, they spread the Christian tradition Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, which is a tradition which takes time to learn it well. Which is primarily studied the local language, which is studied by means of two-way understanding untuki educated native Dutch language, and besides that, they also learn the native language of the local natives. The spread of Christianity by the method of dealing directly with the natives. Ev. Yotley, Pdt.Wetstein do Matatula and persuasive approach and carefully tried to apply in the lives of indigenous Christians in the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. For example, Tehit, Ev.Yotley, Matatula and Pdt.Wetstein has taught the gospel to the Silla Safkaur who never listened to gospel, which didogmatisasi with Christian theology that human beings are obliged to begin work by saying the name of the Lord Jesus Christ as the guide as a layman in this Christianity keep winning, then Jesus Christ is described as the Savior and the Father of all the blessings and grace from him all activities must beg his guidance and blessings from Him in doing something.
This persuasive approach developed and responded to by the community Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, making Ev.Yotley, and Rev. Matatula. Wetstein more free to spread the Christian religion with the established church marked to disseminate religious knowledge further. This was originally the Christian religion began to establish formal education as lebaga SD YPK, as the transformation of public education media
Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Among the SD YPK, many people change Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, become an educated person, which of the various circles of society to study the formal education. Christian has made a change that had a major influence in the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat Papua, although the institution was founded by Christians with a vision founded on the Christian mission which was followed by a community Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, to Christianity in their area.
Impressions and Christian endeavor can still be seen in the local area such as
In the area Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, many lined primary schools named YPK plus names that match the build regional origin. In daily practice, schools and churches filled with tesebut
worship activities (worship of the eucharist) by penginil and Sunday School teacher. Each month of December, this settlement looks so crowded visited by locals who wander away to do a ritual or joint natalan which has mentradisi.
C. Role in the spread of Christian evangelist
1. Christian Early Stage in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, Papua
We observed that the spread of Christianity in any society, including the Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, spread through three stages, namely; through trade as a first step, and sending, (Catholic) as the second stage and the distribution of delegates Pure evangelist (third stage) .
The first stage is, through the traders. This stage, the Christian gospel is not so publicly introduced to the people Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, about the basics of Christianity as a religion adhered to. Because at that time, the search of spices and VOC traders do the prayers of the closed nature of their personal and engaging host who has had their homes temporarily staying. Although this stage is very close and personal, but at least have to involve the family in the house so it was assumed that Christianity had heard Maybrat region, Imian, Sawiat, in the century.
The second stage is the stage where Catholic missionaries began pengutus-menjangkaui missionary to the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. This stage has been successfully infiltrated by Maybrat open to the public, Imian, Sawiat, with the worship of the eucharist and clear. This second stage is the first stage where Catholics had menjangkaui region Maybrat, although now embracing the Catholic religion is only a few people are coming from Aifat, Mare, Karon, Snopi and surrounding areas. They are from the tribe Meyah and Meymaka. This tribe was the tribe of Maybrat tribes.
The third stage is the stage where the international communist movement began to map the coverage area for preaching the Christian gospel. This stage is well done and successful to date. GKI was able to infiltrate the interior region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. At this stage is generally known to Christians by Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, namely the Middle Ages to the 18th. evangelist who has successfully spread the Christian doctrine is Ev.Yotlei, Ev. Matatula and Pdt. J. Wetstein. In the late 18th century people Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, starting along the pillars of faith and Kristen.Dalam this stage, the dominance of the introduction of Christianity permeates people's minds start Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, as bombaridir barrage that struck a fragile bulwark of Where Christians firmly say that evil is a sin it is a prohibition that is the problem of punishment and divine retribution for human deeds done. Pastors or evangelists introduce religious laws of his followers. At this stage, the eucharist, the church began to grow and become a trend exclusive to adherents. Meanwhile, the study on the spread of Christianity as a holistic teaching and was once a concern, including the development of education. before the reforms in the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, many people Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, focused on their traditional theological tradition of the wiyon-wofle regarded by Christians as classical and pagan, which focus on rote teaching as doctrines the nature and fasting as well as closed and the sacred in education. Christian practices and customs in wiyon-century wofle powerful influence wiyon-wofle expressly so that is still happening and syncretism and the pursuit of Christian believers began mendogmatik with the weight of influence strategy is to release wiyon-wofle. This condition occurs because Christians came with software. In addition, Christian literacy more widely used by the evangelist, while wiyon-wofle use as a magical literasinya which is also used by its leaders, (wiyon Ra-na wofle). It is thus that the doctrine wiyon-wofle emphasized the importance of literacy in botgif wiyon-wofle used for magical interests than the interests of the modern scientists at that time. Short bo-wofle Tgif wiyon greater emphasis on magic than science; ecstasy than the experience of law provisions wiyon-wofle. The most important institution is wiyon-wofle loose commitment-commitment, but the exclusive focus of an individual who is considered almost sacred, and often creates indvidu cult. Condition wiyon-wofle law causes wiyon-Na Ra or Raa wofle bam-Na tmah often play multiple roles. Besides the religious leaders (tradition), ra-na wiyon also believed to be wofle healer, psychic and so on. The followers believe that literacy is controlled by wiyon-Na Ra wofle can be used as a magical power. Wiyon-Na Ra wofle often visited by his followers not only associated with religious issues, but also about issues kemagisan. In that role wiyon-Na Ra's wofle cult, as was the case at that time and until now it is still there and although it is still done in private. A wiyon-Na Ra have authority wofle in an initiation ceremony and usually cult as a "saint" in the wiyon-wofle. Associated with the entry Krisren. In the late 18th century can be called outreach movement of Christian souls among Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Outreach group called the soul known as a missionary evangelist, or better known as a conservative missionaries. The conservative view that the Christian community among Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, still a mixture of a syncretic customs with Christian teachings. This requires the purification of Christian doctrine, called the puritanical. Puritan movements directly or indirectly into the embryo of the Christian nationalist movement, which until the 19th century occurred Christian streams of repentance that mentioned his repent people. The people repented they may have released all their traditional eucharist and hearts to focus their lives on the Christian gospel.
Driven by the GKI and Christian conversion in the records of our observations about the Christian history in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, a nationalist movement embryos belonging to the Evangelical movement. GKI puritans in the 18th century began to be a trend going ecclesial eucharistic before joining the
2. Modernization Phase
Modern is not defined as "Western components" but rather meant as setting the progress of science and science is rooted in religious values. Max Weber, Robert N. Bellah and Clifford Geertz, see religion as the inspiration of a humanization movement, science, culture and so on. Durkheim also revealed that sui generis religion, by Richardson describes as "felt whole" overall feeling "that was built by religion, that religion is present in any context, and used as inspiration by a human being who understands God to enlighten civilization. (
Modernization process carried out in two ways: First, through the injection motivation, and the second through think tanks revolution. The first way is more motivated by the progress of the outside world. In Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, modernization of educational institutions is influenced by the education system outside of the century, which is mainly Dutch colonial education system. This system brought by the Dutch government and implemented in the formal education system Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Finally, there is renewal in the Christian education isntitusi Christian Education Foundation (YPK and YPPK), the classical, but always follow the changes in the education system, despite the reforms, the reform of the education curriculum to be Indonesianness Colonial. The second way is to inspire a revolution of modernization through think tanks, namely the idea of renewal of the Church who came from the thinkers of the Church who are not prepared to accept being left behind in the world arena. According to this group, dropping it could be overcome through optimization of understanding of Christian doctrine and Optimization Human Education. In view of this Christian modernists, dropping Christians in Papua is also Christian's fault, because the understanding of religion is not only spiritually but also physically must be considered. In
Moreover, the reluctance to accept a plurality as a storehouse of culture and nature, and make a difference as a confrontational method of exhausting. Alibatnya is going demolition of buildings of traditional initiation wiyon-wofle. This modernist group setting is not trapped in the thinking wiyon-wofle narrow, usually more interested in understanding balance wofle with wiyon-bo snyuk. Wofle is Wiyon-traditional pemahan keagaman to traditional wealth, while the Christian is deconstructed by the law in the lives of Christian Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. These two have not found a good balance in eksotorik to esotorik. In this case, a more assertive of the group is to put Christian modernist Christians as ideology or social transformation pardigma in the midst of society. This task is finally done by the clergy or evangelists, but not all of the evangelist was able to run the mission, so the task is much taken over by groups of academics who are educated and pay attention to the Christians. This era in Maybrat, Imian, look at Sawiat Christian Modernization is understood as a paradigm shift in Christian thinking, rather than building a new Christian definitions but considered as a missionary. Viewed from the line of thought, the birth of this paradigm due to "unwillingness" of Christian thinkers of the Christians left behind in "merancah" social world, and the narrow view of Christian evangelists who only pulled from one side of the faith and spirit that the Christian idea of transferring to literasinya in the real world tend to be inhibited. In Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, Christian modernization paradigm of thought is actually already appeared since the birth of a battering ram puritanisasi purification Ktisten understanding of Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat still thick with the initiation of culture. However, modernization is more developed as the Christian end of the 18th century along with the religious movement founded the Christian Education Foundation (YPK, YPPK) to build religious schools in the modern Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Christian modernization more emphasis on the formation characteristics of Christians to manifest the diversity of life in a real context. Therefore, the necessary instruction and religious education sisitem significantly to that goal. So in the early modernization, it is evident the institutional reforms and Christian organizations, such as the birth of SD YPK, YPPK, SMP YPK, YPPK, SMA YPK, YPPK, with modernist patterns and the emergence of the Christian platform organizations.
In Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, modernization begun by changing the traditional education systems with modern education system that classical, licensed and have a curriculum. In Teminabuan example, people with ekolah teachers Teachers ie Dutch-educated teachers who become the embryo of primary school (SD). The school was very influential in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. At this time, there are two approaches is to build a community evangelist Christians, namely the approach and the approach to movement education. Educational approach is more focused on the ideational changes in the young generation, while the approach includes the establishment of the Church movement and the progressive Christian institutions.
Education is managed by the conservative evangelist or missionary has given birth at least thinking maps to Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, as well as a shift Sawiat Christian thought from wofle to wiyon-Christian modernization. The birth of modernist schools are not able to directly make Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, not having vacuum system of thought wiyon-wofle initiation. Meanwhile, the evangelist in the Christian modernization is divided into two poles, namely the young evangelist and the elderly. Namely young evangelist Penginil-modernist and conservative evangelist, evangelist, evangelist usually have a view oriented, and they are influenced by the concepts of reform from outside. While the evangelist-old is surviving Penginil with the concepts of the past Evangelism and they also were often linked the initiation wiyon ideology-ideology wofle with the gospel, and still maintain the tradition-ritualization ritualization and rites of traditional teaching wiyon-wofle. The young evangelist was they who spoke with the sequence of the use of biblical literacy in the context of broader kehididupan, where Bible verses are not "locked in understanding" a petty and narrow. For the modern Christian missionary groups, religious realistically applied.
Religion is intended to empower the people as a whole. It must be admitted that in the early stages, the concept of modernization of education is not fully outstretched, because it is still constrained by the colonial system which only provides the opportunity for descendants are mengenyamnya weight. The schools in the Dutch colonial administration developed new moves with the theoretical education system and not equipped with skills education. As a result, when there is a change in market development, especially the economic system, society Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, SR alumni difficult to follow these developments.
3. Phase Change
Schools founded by Christian conservative directly or indirectly have an influence on the community mentality Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. First, the influence of religious education who gave birth to the evangelist and pastor. Second, the influence of the mentality that has implications for the lifestyle (life style) and ways of thinking. Influence permeates the birth of a movement which later
the embryo of the birth of the intelligentsia. In Maybrat, Imian, plane, many of the intelligentsia who were born from the schools there. Movement not only with religious beraikatan alone or skriptual orthodoxy called evangelism. This skriptual orthodoxy, took place around the end of the 18th century the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat.
During this movement comes from the uncertainty melilihat Trained in social change, economic, political and, moreover, the acceptance of modern schools in
radical. This happens because the Dutch colonial rule curriculum Most education when it was just a rote, so that does not encourage originality. The students are not taught to understand the radically new ideas, because the general public can not accept it. New ideas disturbing social order and endangering the public. In the conservative society of stability and social order
considered more important than freedom of expression.
This perspective shift continues. YPK curriculum system Indonesianness new breakthrough system that is different from the Dutch Colonial Christian education. Schools established under the name YPK or able to renew YPPK people thinking Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. At this time, the evangelist or missionary received significant challenges of the modern priests. The thoughts of Christianity began to shift from classical to contemporary thinking, because social change phenomenon, has spawned a new reality.
To explain the new phenomenon would require the integration of science reliji with a strong spirit of Christianity. The changes are so rapid is less accessible by the area of religion, and community control was not a lot of plays. This condition not only felt in the community Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, but the whole of Papua underwent the same conditions:
Evangelists and missionaries advantage is the ability to be present in the midst of the community at large, able to combine the mind keilmuanannya in common language, and able to build a real community strength and cohesive. But unfortunately not yet equipped with the device more transformative theological. The condition was caused eksisitensi ecclesial community less desirable, because Christianity has not transformative scholarship. As a result, YPK Schools, more YPPK survive in the rural community. Meanwhile, in urban, modern schools quickly accessed by the public, in line with the market economy system bergulirnya the human desire as the "engine" printing money, and skills to make money is more concentrated in the modern school. Authority YPK, YPPK began marginalized. The pride of a generation that has a high theology began defeated by the educated and have income adequate positions. This is traumatic social phenomena seen in times of change in Maybrat, Imian, and Papua Sawiat general.
Along with these phenomena, the tradition of Christian thought split into two camps, namely the tradition of the conversion of religious understanding and the international communist movement as well as Catholics. Repentance and the international communist movement in the more developed rural Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat to maintain a Christian educational system, while the modern understanding of Christianity developed in urban areas, defined by a pastor who can access the renewal and change. In the perspective of sociology, explained the changes that need to know the context of change, because change and the conditions before the change. Like it or not, transformative actors must have a holistic knowledge of the problems. At this stage, any change of thought can not be separated from the process of modernization. Thought Christianity was no longer in the classic Penginil authority, but began to move on intellectual academics. Transformation of this thinking has built two communities of religious thought, the community of classical and modern thought. Community classic thinking is more developed and applied by the evangelists in classic, in the church in the countryside by the classical evangelist. Semenatara group of intellectuals, more developed in urban areas.
D. Transformational Theology
Transformative theology states that reality is not only read by Christian glasses, but also viewed from the side praksisnya. In essence, there is a dialectical relationship between the Christian ideal and the reality. The goal is to change the facts in accordance with Christian ideals. Transformative theology tries to understand the holistic orthodoxy. Reality, phenomena and facts must be resolved or brought to the arena of Christian ideas. In the same context. However, the inability to describe such orthodoxy has made Christians in the noisy turmoil terpetiemaskan social reality, so that the Christian presence before us like a "monument of stone" carved finished, just as a historical fact that very menumental.
The tendency is to be understood and lived out by Christians, so Christians are not confined to the pettiness and narrowness of the Christian understanding itself. Christian literacy must be translated into reality, not stored in the "glass house" narrow understanding. When Christians floating literacy in the narrow sense, the Christian will be visible in the trust and the understanding that exclusive, which is then translated by the world vulnerable to outside as fundamentalism groups.
In transformative theology, Christians are expected to theological mendialogkan into reality. This is especially needed rationalization understanding of Christian doctrine. We think the rationale may be very closely related to modernization, therefore modernization is a must for Christians, because it very closely with modern science. Mugkin Gospel as a paradigm, with the intention mode of thought, modes of inquiry that is expected to produce modes of knowing, in which the Bible as the construction of knowledge. Based on this paradigm, underdevelopment and backwardness in terms of Christian civilization caused by a mistake in placing the Christian Gospel as a source of vast paradigm.
How to view the above has given birth to two Christian thought, namely;
Their backgrounds conventional Christian tradition of science and those trained in the Western tradition (modernist). Both did not differ in the peel of theology. For conventional Christian circles, as the science of kalam theology with the sense of a discipline which studies the science of divinity, is abstract, normative, and scholasticism. As for the second stream is more to see theology as an interpretation of the divine reality in perspective, more empirical form of reflection. Based on this paradigm constellation, transformative theological thinking Christians are split into two, the first thought which does not accept external reality, modernization always diidentikan with the West, so refrain from the modern mainstream. Second, the intellectual who can receive the modernization as a reality that must be illuminated with transformative theology, which was built by strengthening the Christian paradigm. To understand the gospel, first, assess and understand the situation or setting the historical problems, whether specific maunpun the macro. Second, menjeneralisasi answers found, so the paradigm is often stated.
This is where it was, keterujian Christian intellectual in explaining Christianity as the religion