Republic of Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands and is dominated by a vast ocean waters reach 62% of Indonesia, with 81,000 km long, and there are about 9261 coastal villages with a population of 22%. In the coastal areas and 78%. In the area of land, of which there are many such activities are industry, commerce, transportation, ports, mining, agriculture, recreation, and settlement.
In many units the surface, sea and inland waters are relatively dominant space with a variety of settlement patterns. Of the many settlements and inland sea waters, one of whom is Maybrat Imian Sawiat Tribe in South Sorong regency and Maybrat District, Papua.
Geographically tribes inhabiting the district Maybrat AYAMARU, AITINYO, Aifat. Imian Sawiat tribe living in the district and Teminabuan Sawiat. Distrika AYAMARU, AITINYO, Aifat and Sawiat semulanya including parts of South Sorong regency in Teminabuan beribukotanya but currently AYAMARU District, AITINYO, Aifat have formed their own district Maybrat. AYAMARU District located south of Sorong Selatan. AITINYO District is located in the east of Sorong Selatan, Aifat located east of Sorong Selatan and is adjacent to and Distik AITINYO Sawiat District located west of South Sorong regency, with the type of wet tropical climate, and dominated by people with farmer livelihoods, fishermen and hunters. From this heterogeneous activities supported by the stage house and the houses hung with supporting materials are generally derived from nature, and stood on the waters for the fishermen, and for farmers standing structure above the ground, rivers, coastal beaches and in the trees.
Residents of this neighborhood is an ethnic consisting of a large tribe of tribes Maybrat, and two children of the tribe Imian, Sawiat and Tehit. Basic livelihood of gardening, fishing and hunting boat with a spear wild binatan, Jubi, Arrow, Parang and Dogs. This tribe as an ethnic majority of Fishermen, farmers and hunters, who have developed farming and hunting their way since a few centuries, so-called human fishermen, farmers and the "hunters".
As a human being fishermen, farmers and hunters, they do all the activities and spend his life with fishing, farming and hunting. Then, in line with increasing time, the human fisherman - farmers - these hunters stay in a shelter and formed a group of settlements (urban space), but the culture of fishing, farming and hunting are still affecting their lives today.
The success and sustainability of housing is to survive, means have been proven to anticipate climate keterujiannya environment. Reliability residential Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribes and cultural values of society against the influence of climatic environment that indoor thermal comfort can be achieved, and examined separately as needed.
Based on the picture has been described in the background, then the problem can be formulated as follows:
1. How does my residential architectural forms Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribe of Papua in creating thermal comfort of the building?
2. How does the influence of climate factors on residential thermal comfort Maybrat tribe Imian Sawiat (halite) in coastal and mountainous regions of South Sorong regency and district of Papua Maybrat
3. Redesain development of traditional forms into modern form by keeping the entire flow of art and texture than the traditional architectural interest Maybrat Imian Sawiat.
C. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
Departure from the problems that have been disclosed in the description of the background, then the objectives of this study are:
1. To determine the effect of residential architecture Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribe of Papua (halite) in creating the building thermal comfort.
2. To determine climate factors on residential thermal comfort tribe Maybrat Imian Sawiat South Sorong regency and Maybrat District, Papua.
3. To develop a modern form by maintaining the flow of architectural styles and housing Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribe.
D. RESEARCH BENEFITS
All the results in may of this research study in the form of formulas, proof theory or specific findings are expected to:
1. Can contribute to the development of science and can be used for possible further research on ethnic residential Maybrat Imian Sawiat coastal and mountainous areas.
2. Can provide technical input in the design of residential buildings Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribe is in coastal and mountainous regions in responding to the influence of humid tropical climate, so in addition to the technical aspects and can better meet the health requirements, from the social aspects of local culture that can be appropriate and acceptable .
3. Can be input to the government and the community in any development activities. Moving the influence of climate in humid tropical regions so that development is always conducted based on environmental factors.
E. RESEARCH SCOPE
Limitations of this study leads to:
1. Forms of architecture and thermal comfort.
2. Climate in humid tropical areas, which affects the thermal comfort of residential Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribe.
3. Thermal comfort.
4. Redesain forms of traditional homes into modern forms.
Of origin - his suggestion? The tetuah tribe Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, has hereditary passage about the traditional houses tribe Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. From the history recounted that the traditional architectural interest Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, was first built by the ancestors of two centuries ago in the year. Both men are too, and sur, which too is called to the rope and sur-called for the timber. Ceriteranya traditional home of the tribe Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, (halite-bol wofle) constructed by following the way the bird makes its nest (ru chlen habe) which was then common ancestor called 'sur' sat and watched the bird deftly brought branches - branches wood to make a nest in the tree shade, and then came the idea that 'time, it can make a bird house for her and why I do not'? This question arises because of his early life Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, they used the caves as a primary residence.
As long bird watching it (sur) was determined to make a home, then he started cutting down trees for use in a home, after he tried to cut wood for him after he (sur) meletakannya on trees used as koloum with a strong idea that will so he let it go for next lift off again but when it fell, but he tried it again and again until he (sur) trying to climb the tree used to make a nest of birds in order to look closely at how closely sticks to put into strong. When he (sur) climbed the tree and tried many times but the results are not perfect then came his brother called "too" and provide input that you can not just put it that way but must use a rope that I take to be strong, but his proposal was not accepted or sur ignore in the belief that he could build it without a rope (tie). Yet with all sorts of ways with which none are successful then he decided to accept his brother's earlier proposal, and when he used the rope as the binding was successful, then he took his brother (too) that let you both have to make a home for us as bird, sur offer too, showing a bird's nest above the tree branch, and any menerimany too and they both began to make homes for them for the first time. This is where the history of the origins of traditional tribal houses Maybrat Imian Sawiat built.
No one knows for sure where the actual incident where the first (first to make the house), but overall is among the region expressed Maybrat or Imian or Sawiat, but here we can guess the area was Maybrat region, the reason for the name of the originator or creator of house maybrat language so that it can be concluded that the events occurred in the region Maybrat. According to the expression of the elders that traditional houses Maybrat existing Imian Sawiat centuries years ago.
As the story of the house Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, that house commonly called (halite) is built with wood and rattan, which was built in the past several centuries before the Christian gospel masukknya in Mansinam to unite the people who live alone and hostile.
Around several centuries before the Christian gospel in the entry Mansinam, Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribe are not familiar with the tribe, or village, but known by clan-Margais-keret that inhabit each area or land on their own ancestral lands. Maybrat people's lives, Imian, Sawiat, at that time was the personal lives of uncompromising, they live based on ego, their minds tend to think about having power over the clan or other keret in a region, the fight to get it, and how as someone who could conquer a keret-clan or clan to clan or clan-keret others.
After entry of the Christian gospel in the island in 1855 with mansinam religion spread more quickly through the region Maybrat Imian Sawiat brought by the evangelists of God, actually Maybrat Imian Sawiat people are familiar with the life of friends. This user-friendly life in the saying that starts from the war itself, which is when one clan could defeat the clan istiri one of the people who killed a wife for him, as well as for children left abandoned by the old people who were killed in the lift as foster care. Children - children in foster care as children of the clan / keret which can not be killed in the change clan / keretnya so that the children or wives of the victims of war as a man who could be able to call their language to their marga-marga/keret-keret who left to gather into one group consisting of two genera, three genera and so forth so much. Unity and kinship of Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, became more intimate when they begin to recognize the education or theology Initiation wiyon-wofle.
Thought Maybrat Imian Sawiat people become more mature with a touch of insight with the introduction of modern literal Christian gospel that teaches you as to require that every human being can not help but to love his enemies, as they had received from wiyon-wofle education, so at that time terbentukklah an association which is known by the name of the village where the village was in headed by a village chief. Entrusted as the mayor is someone who is an honorable man stratanya or so-called 'weight', someone said to weight because it meets the criteria as follows: He was of noble birth, has the right large land area, personality, ability in the world wars, hunting, has a natural strength, has relationships with other village heads, high-minded, capable of doing big parties such as the initiation wiyon-wofle and ready to bear all the issues that made people.
F.1. How to Shelter Family Ancestors Maybrat Imian Papua Sawiat
Mentioned above that the ancestral home Family Maybrat Imian Sawiat made of wood and rattan. It is justified by the evidence as it is proof - proof of authenticity and called names too (rattan) and sur (wood), and when examined in far backward in the days before people Maybrat Imian Sawiat need a place to stay for themselves and their families cope , either from rain, binantang wild, as well as from the enemy. They inevitably have to think practically in various ways have been passed in order to survive, then the ancient people - people use maybrat imian sawiat caves - caves (Isra) as the home where the cave - the cave was actually more mirib with niche - a niche in rocks that can be used for shelter.
Until now the lack of research on the cave - a cave that was used as a place to protect themselves. Besides the cave - the cave, there are unisex items other legacy inherited their fathers who are still stored.
Goods - goods such heritage is: machete 'hlambra', machetes, according
Farokh, a similar function as selokhy the tempayang casting saguer Selokhy beverage is made from wood and colored with earth, charcoal and water after which the color, the colored peg and then dried in the fire which is usually placed above the ridge directly related to air
Bagi suku Maybrat, Imian dan Sawiat, peninggalan – peninggalan ini merupakan harta karung turun – temurun yang dipercaya memiliki nilai – nilai tersendiri. Dianggap sebagai barang – barang antik dan merupakan harta karun karena barang – barang tersebut tidak pernah dijual dan hanya diperoleh dari hasil peninggalan.
that is a gift of nature 'Tagi' and until now not known who the machete makers. See the picture below which is listed next to:
The following dragon fangs 'safah', the dragon fangs met in a circle cyrus, and pig tusks 'way', pig tusks formed a C. Heritage - heritage is believed to have values very high.
The heat from the furnace of fire or smoke. After the dry for two to three months, it can be taken selokhy then washed with clean water to be used as a means of pouring drinks. Here are some omissions that are considered as a treasure so precious by the Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, Papua is:
For tribe Maybrat, Imian and Sawiat, heritage - a heritage treasure sacks this fall - traditionally believed to have value - the value of its own. Regarded as the goods - antiquities and is a treasure trove for the goods - the goods are never sold and only obtained from the legacy. heritage - the legacy of a material - the material completeness of the fashion in decorating the body when attending the ceremony - the ceremony honored. At the time - the previous time, for the tribe Maybrat, Imian and Sawiat, people - people who are eligible to enter the shrine or wiyon traditional school-age wofle on it, either a great teacher (the principal-priest) "Ra bam - na tmah" , teacher assistants "Raa Wyion - Na wofle" and a new student who completed his studies "wyion TNA - na wofle", are required to wear the heritage - the heritage as a fashion or clothing.
another Some relics
For a student who has successfully than traditional education, before leaving the room she put on her school clothes - special clothing to indicate that he has passed or the trust people Maybrat, Imian and Sawiat he was a saint (Wiyon-Na Ra wofle), because when a child who is sent to school there, he was required to fast and the food is just sebongkahan taro (ketala) and the drink is sugar cane tops the youngest. Rules are eating once a day and that too when allowed by a professor. Belief in the traditional education that simply was educated about the so-called natural theology wiyon-wofle, which teaches a belief in it is full of traditional supernatural powers, and to gain strength - the strength, a student will be required to leave even the release of all things related with the idea - the evil thoughts, thought of it - it past that he never laluinya, break away from the flesh (worldly) finite and perfectly willing to submit himself to be educated ririskiky clean. Thus, the student is a student of the sacred and the most precious future. That is a brief introduction about the history of the development of traditional architecture Maybrat Imian Sawiat called 'halite-bol'. G. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEREST TO STAY HOME MAYBRAT IMIAN SAWIAT Changes in the form of residential architecture, is because the development, architectural form is not found immediately, but is formed through a process. Ie; process of trying (trial and error) is a form of human intervention in a long time. Because of the complexity linear with time, nowadays it is a continuous interaction between the growing design (growing design) and the environment. The analysis of the development of the home as follows:
1. The first place people Maybrat human Imian Sawiat and generally sheltered from climatic conditions and disorders of the tree beast.
2. Same as above, Cave used as a place to shelter from the natural disturbance outside.
3. The next development was the start he knew a rigid construction of the branches - wooden sticks to form a house or tent.
4. The next development in the stage leaving the house for safety away from the animals and also from the enemy and humidity comfort.
5. The next form is still like shape before, but combined with improving the quality and variety of building elements.
6. The following forms of development and sophistication. Factors - factors that affect residential Maybrat Traditional Tribe Imian Sawiat (halite), namely:
1. The influence of climate on the building's creation.
2. Pengruh environmental situation relating to threats both animals and humans. 3. Religious prohibitions found in the elements - elements and certain spaces.
4. Symbol use, materials: construction and technology as a modifier factor, does not determine the form.
5. The economy does not have a decisive impact of home
6. The influence of religion on the form, design, purpose and orientation, especially the shrine or a traditional school house k'wiyon-bol wofle - tabernacle.
Schematic form of house developments.
Humans and trees, and the Cave Man and Man and shelter
Solar radiation + rain with alang-alang/dedaunan
Residential stage with imagery without walls and inhibition of heat
with the air space and imagery and inhibition of heat without a shadow
Form and structure of the house Maybrat Imian Traditional Tribe Sawiat is a traditional building which can be used as a mirror to the level of technology, will mirror the lifestyle (wav of life) and the value - the value Maybrat Imian Sawiat Community. Traditional houses Family Maybrat Imian both structure and Sawiat other materials indicate environmental conditions as well as house building materials from wood, bamboo, and gaba - gaba. Material - this material form or fariasi limit structure, especially when done with simple technology. People - people in the region Maybrat Imian Sawiat Sorong Selatan is also included in the tropical forests, only thinking makes the roof of the house to facilitate the fall of rain. Also found in the swamps - marshes or waters (coastal) who built a house with a tendency to use a high stake in order to avoid the ebb and flow of brackish water (sea water).
G.1. Family Living Architecture Houses Maybrat Imian Sawiat
Ethnic residential Maybrat Imian Sawiat is one of the traditional Living Houses in Indonesia. Traditional Family Houses Maybrat Imian Sawiat is a building stage of the pole - the pole size timber length. Pole timber used is categorized as a strong type of wood in the tropics, which is connected from one structure to another structure with interconnected and form a house hold. In terms of organizational space, houses Family Maybrat Imian Sawiat divided into two main sections namely: isit (porch) and Samu Mato (in space / interior). As for K'wiyon-bol wofle (Holy House / School / camp) has: Bohra wine or creditors called finya (Page Out), credit ra sme (Sacred Space), and samu mbaouw ro mato toni (Glory Room). Original form of residential Maybrat Imian Sawiat Interest consists of three parts namely: the legs, the body and the head. The foot is Hafot - Sur (Koloum - Pole) and Barit (stairs). Body part is samu mato (in space / interior) as an activity room, kriras (wall). The head of the AFI (roof). Koloum quadrangular and circular-shaped adapula. Round pole. Koloum and pole rests directly on the ground to hang the house built at ground level, whereas the pole resting on a tree body, the house or hanging in a tree house built above the shade tree. Section head or saddle-shaped roof generally, with a slope of 45 °. At the end of the roof is left with a surplus of wood the size of a pig jaws hanging demonstrated the ability to hunt a man - man. In the flow of building a house, building forms in the strata / caste is not highlighted. Traditional Houses Maybrat Imian Sawiat had no windows, but in the space penghawaan, People - Maybrat Imian Sawiat People tend to make ventilase size / lattice - the lattice is very large, uncovered, so that air enters the air can provide a good air comfort. Maybrat Imian Sawiat community build a house with a lack of size but in some ways - some of which is adjusted to the size of materials - building materials like wood. Both walls, stairs, even the height of the building while the roof was measured with a leaf pattern and form of Swastika, which in the language known as Tionghoa latticework. In the bronze age western Europe is also known as the symbol of Swastika circulation main stars and the sun is described as a symbol of the master carrier. The development of residential Maybrat Interest Imian Sawiat through four stages / phases, namely:
1. The first phase, they only reside in Bandar tree (fig Mair) and the cave - the cave (Isra). Sometimes the cave - the cave as a place to live in such a long time and sometimes only as a stopover on the way far and in completing the work such as gardening, and hunting. Until the 19th century, these places is very useful, sometimes until now bndar caves and trees are still often used as a temporary haven of Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, in their long journey. For example in the travel distance within 2 days they had to spend the night on the road.
Picture: Cave as a place to live first person maybrat, imian, sawiat,
Papua and the Airport as a place to live tree early
2. Phase two, they began to build homes of high-or over-sized trees - big trees to avoid danger from wild animals, and the enemy. In this phase they have to think about the safety and comfort themselves.
Picture: The first house Maybrat, imian, which was built with sawiat pedestal above the tree (halite-bol myi fig)
3. Third phase, in this phase they are making progress, and can be considered as a phase towards a semi-modern approach. Forms of existing house to match the existing modern house, when viewed in terms of style, but still with the material - natural materials.
Picture: The first form of house Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, Papua,
which was built with pedestal above the tana (halite halite myi-bol)
4. Phase Four, in this phase is the phase that is affected by modernization and teknmologi. The furniture is all modern, and trade had been expanding through and infiltrate into the entire township Maybrat Imian Sawiat in South Sorong Regency and Regency Maybrat Papua Province.
Picture : Semi Moderen Residential
and its people have become people s who succeed. For Maybrat Imian Sawiat society, education is very important to them, because education indicates that the future is there. Residential development Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribe can not be separated from the culture that developed in Its people. As a community whose origins known as Fishermen man, farmer and hunter, so if they do not know herang Appabolang culture. Appabolang itself is the factor - factor into consideration Ethnic Communities Maybrat Imian Sawiat to build a house. Factors - these factors is the pattern of life, livelihood, knowledge of the natural environment, religion and belief. Until now this house pattern tends to persist, but the doubts will keeksistensiannya until 2025 because interest Maybrat Imian Sawiat west tend to develop the architecture rather than their traditional architecture, even as farmers and hunters who are still attached to their culture in maintaining certain values - values and forms - traditional form, because the whole society, nature and buildings have been integrated in the cultural values intact, but only as to know, because until now the tendency of people Maybrat Imian Sawiat in moderenkan expand their traditional architecture is not visible (lack of exploratory). Please note that the housing Maybrat Imian tribe is located in Palm forest natural area with nature are very hard. In this case can be illustrated that Papua's natural environment in general and housing Maybrat Imian Sawiat tribe known as the full nature of the mountain - mountains, valleys, steep cliffs, forests, bushes and hillsides. This will be a challenge for the home directly related to the homogeneous nature to survive, because in addition to adjusting to the influence of surrounding nature, as well as moisture problems caused by nature. The wind is blowing from the mainland at night can change the temperature becomes very cold air and rainfall of this area occurred during the year. This of course brings its own problems which is very important to note for the gardening farmers and hunters. The success or sustainability of this housing to survive until now, meant to prove that keterujiannya to anticipate climatic conditions of their environment. Ethnic residential toughness Maybrat Imian Sawiat its value - the value of community cultural climate influence the environment through indoor thermal comfort and safety from attack - attack can be achieved, until you feel a need to be maintained and interesting to write about.
Diposkan oleh THE INTELEK PAPUA di 18:43 0 komentar
Senin, 09 November 2009
Diffusion CHRISTIAN TEACHING AND THINKING THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN IN-MAYBRAT IMIAN SAWIAT PAPUA TEHIT
Diffusion CHRISTIAN TEACHING AND THINKING
THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN
IN-MAYBRAT IMIAN SAWIAT PAPUA TEHIT
By: Hamah Sagrim.
This paper discusses the history of fusion between the teachings of Christian gospel with the indigo-inilai local Maybrat Imian Sawiat-Tehit and clerical role in creating it. Through this historical study, the author revealed that in early Christian history and modern periods are divided in their attitudes toward local traditions into two groups: conservative and inclusive. Conservative group seeks local tradisitradisi convert, while the inclusive teaching mengharmonikan Kirsten with local values. Such ideas are often discussed in the Church publki like. Besides that, the issue of modernizing the system of Christian teaching is also a topic of discussion in this paper. All play a significant role in the spread of Christians in the region Maybrat Imian Sawiat-Tehit Papua.
Keywords: diffusion, Christian doctrine, the local values, religious, conservative, inclusive.
A. Introduction Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat are three sub-tribes of bonberai tribes, namely that ethnic kinship systems patrilineal.1) Family of this nation, has a sense of history unique population distribution and "somewhat" mystical or full of stories and old mythology. 2) Area Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit Papua initially homogeneous regions exclusively, with a very small area, but due to natural processes marked by kinship and marriage system and played system east of cloth, then formed a large area like this, with the territory or colonies that are distinguished on the basis of language usage tracks. For example Maybrat areas are regions or colonies jajakan language Maybrat, Imian areas are regions colonies jajakan or Imaian language, and Sawiat-Tehit areas are regions or colonies jajakan-Sawiat Bansa Tehit.
1. Patrilineal kinship system into Maybrat Imian Sawiat kinship can not be separated from Portuguese patrilineal historical factors that go into this area. This system brought by Seeker of spices in the Exploration of the Portuguese nation, then the merchants are using the Papuans as their messenger opas namely the Fak-Fak.
2 There is no bomna customs and bomna history, customs bomna told about indigenous issues Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, while history tells bomna historical problems associated with the Maybratan, Ke-Ke-Imianan and Sawiatan-Tehit. The first residential occupancy by a clan or village keret is, and until now recognized as customary rights of their culture. At the beginning of kinship clan runs a natural life, then due to increase in the number of individuals and the formation of areas of new kampong, the village was declared as a system of government. According to the search history that we've done, the village originally formed by the accumulation of the three settlement process established in the community Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, namely keret, hamlets, and kampong. In keret settlement, the Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit live simply and do not live in groups with other kelen as kin or relatives keret clan, which just after the village community formed a small group of close relatives clan. Village community consisting of at least three groups named after the clan village settlement with relatives of clan leadership led by a landlord (tabam-weight ra) who is the owner of the rights of indigenous leaders are weight-captain, and only then Village. Kampong is the smallest social group Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, which has a system and its own leadership structure, the head of kampung. Someone who as head of the kampong at the time was someone who understood the several languages, and scholars, in which power is integrated with one another in the deliberation and consensus. Existence of the village government is not functioning due to be replaced by a system of village administration through the Law No. 5 of 1979. The system of regional autonomy in the era of reform concepts meenghidupkan back berkampong through Regulation No. 9 of 2000. However, various obstacles and problems surfaced due to the lack of clarity in the concepts that turn kampong.
Judging from the aspect of the customs, people Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat separated by two camps, the camps under the rule of one weight (King) and one faction under the authority of Master. Weight (king) tend to run a traditional system rather conservative, while the Master is more democratic. This traditional second born in the dynamics of conflict keadatan, government and religion in society Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Nevertheless, both camps are still in a unit Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, and as a formulation Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat plurality of socio cultural practices.
B. History of Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat.
Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, based on sosiografis consists of two regions namely, Tehit and SFA, each having the structure of language typology and different but the same religion. Tehit region is a region located geologically in the coastal area with people's livelihoods as fishermen, while the SFA is located in the mountains and the fertile agricultural area with a population of livelihood as a farmer's eyes.
1. Constellation Tehit in Religion in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat.
In the spread of Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, meaning Coast region
important to be studied and used as the basis of history, since the arrival of Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, did not escape the process of economic interaction between Portuguese traders who came through the Fak-Fak to find spices and birds of paradise that introduces some glassware materials as an increase of Economists native (Tehit 1958) In addition, coastal areas including metropolitan areas because of the lane and transit transportation of foreign economists. Cultural and religious contacts more quickly accessed and accumulated by Tehit community. In the spread of Christianity in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, coastal areas or the central region Tehit a Christian development. Information on this history can be traced through the religious carriers that come through the river kaibus Tehit by evangelist named Yotley, Matatula and accompanied by the Rev.. J. Wetstein, which they combed the area Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, through kaibus river Tehit coast, they spread the Christian tradition Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, which is a tradition which takes time to learn it well. Which is primarily studied the local language, which is studied by means of two-way understanding untuki educated native Dutch language, and besides that, they also learn the native language of the local natives. The spread of Christianity by the method of dealing directly with the natives. Ev. Yotley, Pdt.Wetstein do Matatula and persuasive approach and carefully tried to apply in the lives of indigenous Christians in the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. For example, Tehit, Ev.Yotley, Matatula and Pdt.Wetstein has taught the gospel to the Silla Safkaur who never listened to gospel, which didogmatisasi with Christian theology that human beings are obliged to begin work by saying the name of the Lord Jesus Christ as the guide as a layman in this Christianity keep winning, then Jesus Christ is described as the Savior and the Father of all the blessings and grace from him all activities must beg his guidance and blessings from Him in doing something.
This persuasive approach developed and responded to by the community Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat-Tehit, making Ev.Yotley, and Rev. Matatula. Wetstein more free to spread the Christian religion with the established church marked to disseminate religious knowledge further. This was originally the Christian religion began to establish formal education as lebaga SD YPK, as the transformation of public education media
Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Among the SD YPK, many people change Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, become an educated person, which of the various circles of society to study the formal education. Christian has made a change that had a major influence in the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat Papua, although the institution was founded by Christians with a vision founded on the Christian mission which was followed by a community Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, to Christianity in their area.
Impressions and Christian endeavor can still be seen in the local area such as Bethel Elementary YPK Sauf which until now still used as a formal educational institutions.
In the area Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, many lined primary schools named YPK plus names that match the build regional origin. In daily practice, schools and churches filled with tesebut
worship activities (worship of the eucharist) by penginil and Sunday School teacher. Each month of December, this settlement looks so crowded visited by locals who wander away to do a ritual or joint natalan which has mentradisi.
C. Role in the spread of Christian evangelist
1. Christian Early Stage in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, Papua
We observed that the spread of Christianity in any society, including the Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, spread through three stages, namely; through trade as a first step, and sending, (Catholic) as the second stage and the distribution of delegates Pure evangelist (third stage) .
The first stage is, through the traders. This stage, the Christian gospel is not so publicly introduced to the people Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, about the basics of Christianity as a religion adhered to. Because at that time, the search of spices and VOC traders do the prayers of the closed nature of their personal and engaging host who has had their homes temporarily staying. Although this stage is very close and personal, but at least have to involve the family in the house so it was assumed that Christianity had heard Maybrat region, Imian, Sawiat, in the century.
The second stage is the stage where Catholic missionaries began pengutus-menjangkaui missionary to the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. This stage has been successfully infiltrated by Maybrat open to the public, Imian, Sawiat, with the worship of the eucharist and clear. This second stage is the first stage where Catholics had menjangkaui region Maybrat, although now embracing the Catholic religion is only a few people are coming from Aifat, Mare, Karon, Snopi and surrounding areas. They are from the tribe Meyah and Meymaka. This tribe was the tribe of Maybrat tribes.
The third stage is the stage where the international communist movement began to map the coverage area for preaching the Christian gospel. This stage is well done and successful to date. GKI was able to infiltrate the interior region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. At this stage is generally known to Christians by Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, namely the Middle Ages to the 18th. evangelist who has successfully spread the Christian doctrine is Ev.Yotlei, Ev. Matatula and Pdt. J. Wetstein. In the late 18th century people Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, starting along the pillars of faith and Kristen.Dalam this stage, the dominance of the introduction of Christianity permeates people's minds start Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, as bombaridir barrage that struck a fragile bulwark of Where Christians firmly say that evil is a sin it is a prohibition that is the problem of punishment and divine retribution for human deeds done. Pastors or evangelists introduce religious laws of his followers. At this stage, the eucharist, the church began to grow and become a trend exclusive to adherents. Meanwhile, the study on the spread of Christianity as a holistic teaching and was once a concern, including the development of education. before the reforms in the region Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, many people Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, focused on their traditional theological tradition of the wiyon-wofle regarded by Christians as classical and pagan, which focus on rote teaching as doctrines the nature and fasting as well as closed and the sacred in education. Christian practices and customs in wiyon-century wofle powerful influence wiyon-wofle expressly so that is still happening and syncretism and the pursuit of Christian believers began mendogmatik with the weight of influence strategy is to release wiyon-wofle. This condition occurs because Christians came with software. In addition, Christian literacy more widely used by the evangelist, while wiyon-wofle use as a magical literasinya which is also used by its leaders, (wiyon Ra-na wofle). It is thus that the doctrine wiyon-wofle emphasized the importance of literacy in botgif wiyon-wofle used for magical interests than the interests of the modern scientists at that time. Short bo-wofle Tgif wiyon greater emphasis on magic than science; ecstasy than the experience of law provisions wiyon-wofle. The most important institution is wiyon-wofle loose commitment-commitment, but the exclusive focus of an individual who is considered almost sacred, and often creates indvidu cult. Condition wiyon-wofle law causes wiyon-Na Ra or Raa wofle bam-Na tmah often play multiple roles. Besides the religious leaders (tradition), ra-na wiyon also believed to be wofle healer, psychic and so on. The followers believe that literacy is controlled by wiyon-Na Ra wofle can be used as a magical power. Wiyon-Na Ra wofle often visited by his followers not only associated with religious issues, but also about issues kemagisan. In that role wiyon-Na Ra's wofle cult, as was the case at that time and until now it is still there and although it is still done in private. A wiyon-Na Ra have authority wofle in an initiation ceremony and usually cult as a "saint" in the wiyon-wofle. Associated with the entry Krisren. In the late 18th century can be called outreach movement of Christian souls among Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Outreach group called the soul known as a missionary evangelist, or better known as a conservative missionaries. The conservative view that the Christian community among Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, still a mixture of a syncretic customs with Christian teachings. This requires the purification of Christian doctrine, called the puritanical. Puritan movements directly or indirectly into the embryo of the Christian nationalist movement, which until the 19th century occurred Christian streams of repentance that mentioned his repent people. The people repented they may have released all their traditional eucharist and hearts to focus their lives on the Christian gospel.
Driven by the GKI and Christian conversion in the records of our observations about the Christian history in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, a nationalist movement embryos belonging to the Evangelical movement. GKI puritans in the 18th century began to be a trend going ecclesial eucharistic before joining the Republic of Indonesia Papua. Have a double role of legal missionaries, namely as the perfect evangelist and spread the understanding of Christian doctrine in the midst of his people when he was about to do puritanisasi in Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. The church also has a major role in shaping the nasip PEPERA people of Papua in 1969.
2. Modernization Phase
Modern is not defined as "Western components" but rather meant as setting the progress of science and science is rooted in religious values. Max Weber, Robert N. Bellah and Clifford Geertz, see religion as the inspiration of a humanization movement, science, culture and so on. Durkheim also revealed that sui generis religion, by Richardson describes as "felt whole" overall feeling "that was built by religion, that religion is present in any context, and used as inspiration by a human being who understands God to enlighten civilization. (Richardson 1967) Weber saw economic modernization was born from the Protestant ethic. Bellah also found that the political and cultural progress in Japan can not be separated from the sprit of the Tokugawa. In Indonesia, Geertz said, religion has to move towards independence struggle.
Modernization process carried out in two ways: First, through the injection motivation, and the second through think tanks revolution. The first way is more motivated by the progress of the outside world. In Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat, modernization of educational institutions is influenced by the education system outside of the century, which is mainly Dutch colonial education system. This system brought by the Dutch government and implemented in the formal education system Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. Finally, there is renewal in the Christian education isntitusi Christian Education Foundation (YPK and YPPK), the classical, but always follow the changes in the education system, despite the reforms, the reform of the education curriculum to be Indonesianness Colonial. The second way is to inspire a revolution of modernization through think tanks, namely the idea of renewal of the Church who came from the thinkers of the Church who are not prepared to accept being left behind in the world arena. According to this group, dropping it could be overcome through optimization of understanding of Christian doctrine and Optimization Human Education. In view of this Christian modernists, dropping Christians in Papua is also Christian's fault, because the understanding of religion is not only spiritually but also physically must be considered. In
Moreover, the reluctance to accept a plurality as a storehouse of culture and nature, and make a difference as a confrontational method of exhausting. Alibatnya is going demolition of buildings of traditional initiation wiyon-wofle. This modernist group setting is not trapped in the thinking wiyon-wofle narrow, usually more interested in understanding balance wofle with wiyon-bo snyuk. Wofle is Wiyon-traditional pemahan keagaman to traditional wealth, while the Christian is deconstructed by the law in the lives of Christian Maybrat, Imian, Sawiat. These two have not found a good balance in eksotorik to esotorik. In this case, a more assertive of the group is to put Christian modernist Christians as ideology or social transformation pardigma in the midst of society. This task is finally done by the clergy or evangelists, but not all of the evangelist was able to run the mission, so the task is much taken over by groups of academics who are educated and pay attention to the Christians. This era in Maybrat, Imian, look at Sawiat Christian Modernization is understood as a paradigm shift in Christian thinking, rather than building a new Christian definitions but considered as a missionary. Viewed from the line of thought, the birth of this paradigm due to "unwillingness" of Christian thinkers of the Christians left behind in "merancah" social world, and the narrow view of Christian evangelists who only pulled from one side of the faith and spirit that the Christian idea of transferring to literasinya in the real world tend to be inhi